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    drill
    The drill bit is mainly divided into: scraper bit; roller bit; diamond bit; carbide bit; special bit. The main indicators for measuring drill bits are: drill bit and mechanical drilling speed.
     
    Eight large rigs
    The eight major parts of the rig are: derrick, crane, swimming block, big hook, faucet, winch, turntable, mud pump.
     
    Drill string composition and its role
    The usual components of the drill string are: drill bits, drill collars, drill pipes, stabilizers, special joints and kelly bars. The basic role of the drill string is:
    (1) Starting the drill bit;
    (2) applying a bite pressure;
    (3) transmitting power;
    (4) conveying drilling fluid;
    (5) Carry out special operations: squeezing cement, handling downhole accidents, etc.
     
    Drilling fluid performance and function
    The performance of drilling fluids mainly includes:
    (1) density;
    (2) viscosity;
    (3) yield value;
    (4) Static force;
    (5) water loss;
    (6) the thickness of the mud cake;
    (7) Sand content;
    (8) pH;
    (9) Solid phase, oil and water content.
     
    Drilling fluid is the blood of drilling, its main role is:
    1) Carrying and floating rock cuttings;
    2) Cooling and lubricating the drill bit and the drill;
    3) Cleaning and flushing the bottom of the well to facilitate drilling;
    4) Using drilling fluid column pressure to prevent blowout;
    5) Protect the well wall to prevent the wall from collapsing;
    6) Passing power for the downhole power drill.
     
    Common drilling fluid purification equipment
    (1) a vibrating screen for removing sand particles larger than the size of the mesh;
    (2) a cyclone separator for removing particles smaller than the size of the sieve mesh;
    (3) a screw centrifugal separator, which functions to recover barite and separate clay particles;
    (4) Screen cylinder centrifugal separator, which functions to recover barite.
     
    Drilling fluid circulation procedure in drilling
    Drilling fluid tanks through pumps → ground manifolds → risers → hoses, faucets → drill columns → drill bits → outer annular space of the drill string → wellhead, mud (drilling fluid) tank → drilling fluid purification equipment → drilling fluid tank.
     
    Drilling fluid damage to oil and gas layers during drilling of oil and gas layers
    There are mainly the following types of damage:
    (1) solid phase particles and mud cake block oil and gas passages;
    (2) the fluid loss causes the clay in the formation to expand to block the pores of the formation;
    (3) ions in the drilling fluid filtrate interact with formation ions to form a sediment blocking channel;
    (4) Produce a water lock effect and increase the resistance of oil and gas flow.
     
    Method for predicting and monitoring formation pressure
    (1) Before the drilling, the earthquake method is adopted;
    (2) In drilling, using the mechanical drilling rate method, d, dc index method, shale density method;
    (3) After completion, use density logging, sonic time difference logging, and oil testing.
     
    Drilling fluid hydrostatic pressure and changes in drilling
    Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure caused by the weight of the drilling fluid itself. Changes in drilling, the entry of cuttings will increase the pressure of the liquid column, oil and gas water will reduce the hydrostatic pressure, and the liquid level of the drilling fluid in the well will reduce the hydrostatic pressure. The methods for preventing the hydrostatic pressure change of the drilling fluid include: effectively purifying the drilling fluid; and drilling the drilling fluid in time.
     
    Jet drilling
    Jet drilling is a drilling method that uses the hydraulic action of a high-speed jet generated by a drilling fluid through a jet bit nozzle to increase the rate of mechanical drilling.
     
    Factors affecting the rate of penetration
    (1) Drilling pressure, rotation speed and drilling fluid displacement;
    (2) the nature of the drilling fluid;
    (3) the size of the bit hydraulic power;
    (4) Rock drillability and bit type.
     
    Drilling core tool
    (1) Core bit: used to drill core;
    (2) Outer core cylinder: withstand the drilling pressure and transmit torque;
    (3) Inner core barrel: store and protect the core;
    (4) Core claws: cut, support, and take out the core;
    (5) There are also suspension bearings, water flow heads, back pressures, and centralizers.
     
    Take the core
    The core is taken during the drilling process by using a special coring tool to take the underground rock into the ground. This block of rock is called the core, through which various properties of the rock can be determined and the underground structure and rock can be visually studied. Deposition environment, understand the fluid properties and so on.
     
    Balanced pressure drilling
    A drilling method that always protects wellbore pressure equal to formation pressure during drilling is called balanced pressure drilling.
     
    Blowout
    It is a phenomenon in which fluid in the formation is sprayed out of the ground or into other formations in the well. The reasons for the blowout are:
    (1) The formation pressure is not accurate;
    (2) The mud density is low;
    (3) The height of the mud column in the well is reduced;
    (4) Drilling and pumping;
    (5) Improper other measures.
     
    Soft shut
    When the overflow is shut down, the throttle valve is opened first, then the blowout preventer is closed, and a shut-off method of closing the throttle valve is tried again. Because this can ensure that the pressure value of the shut-in wellhead does not exceed the allowable wellhead pressure value, and ensure the safety of the well control. Once the pressure in the well is too large, it can be throttled and discharged.
     
    Overflow display during drilling
    (1) The level of the drilling fluid storage tank rises;
    (2) The flow rate of the drilling fluid outlet is accelerated;
    (3) Speed ​​up or venting;
    (4) The circulating fluid pressure of the drilling fluid decreases;
    (5) Display of oil, gas and water in the well;
    (6) The performance of the drilling fluid changes at the exit.
     
    Overflow shut-off procedure
    (1) stop the pump;
    (2) lifting the drill pipe;
    (3) Properly open the throttle valve;
    (4) closing the blowout preventer;
    (5) Try to close the throttle valve;
    (6) Send a signal and report the captain and technician quickly;
    (7) Accurately record column and casing pressure and mud increments.
     
    Downhole complex in drilling
    Drilling is caused by improper selection of drilling fluid type and performance, poor wellbore quality, etc., resulting in downhole encounters, encountering cards, and serious jumps, lost circulation, blowouts, etc. during drilling, and cannot maintain normal drilling and other operations. The normal phenomenon of progress.
     
    Drilling accident
    It refers to the consequences of broken drills, drills, stuck drills and blowouts due to improper inspection, illegal operation, and improper handling or negligence in handling downhole complex conditions.
     
    Well leak
    The leak is mainly discovered by the following phenomena:
    (1) The amount of drilling fluid pumped into the well> the amount of returning, in case of seriousness;
    (2) The level of the drilling fluid tank drops and the amount of drilling fluid decreases;
    (3) The pump pressure drops significantly. The more serious the loss, the more obvious the drop in pump pressure.
     
    Card drill and cause
    Card drilling is caused by geological factors, poor drilling fluid performance, improper technical measures, etc. during the drilling process, so that the drilling tool can not move freely in the well for a long time. This phenomenon is called stuck drilling. There are mainly stuck card drills, grit sand drills, sand bridge stuck drills, well collapsed card drills, reduced diameter stuck drills, mud pack stuck drills, falling material stuck drills and drills falling off the next stuck drills.
     
    Method of handling stuck drill accidents
    (1) foaming card release;
    (2) using a jar to strike the card;
    (3) inverted buckle milling;
    (4) Explosive buckle;
    (5) Explosive drilling tools side-drilling new eyes, etc.
     
    Cementing
    Cementing is to insert a string of casings of a certain size into the well, and inject cement slurry around it to fix the casing to the well wall to avoid collapse of the well wall. Its purpose is to block complex layers such as loose, easy to collapse and easy to leak; seal oil, gas and water layers to prevent mutual leakage; install wellheads to control oil flow to facilitate drilling or production of oil and gas.
     
    Well structure
    include:
    (1) the casing level of a well;
    (2) the diameter and the depth of the casing of each layer;
    (3) the corresponding drill diameter and drilling depth of each layer of casing;
    (4) The height of the cement returning outside the casing of each layer, and so on.
     
    Casing post lower structure
    (1) Guide shoes: guide the casing into the well to prevent the casing from being inserted or scraped into the wall;
    (2) casing shoes: guiding the drilling tool drilled inside the casing into the casing;
    (3) Swirling short section: make the cement slurry swirl back, which is beneficial to the mud and improve the quality of cementing;
    (4) Casing back pressure Versail: prevent the cement slurry from flowing back, and the casing time prevents the mud from entering the casing;
    (5) Support ring: support rubber stopper and control cement plug height;
    (6) Casing centralizer: The casing is centered in the well to improve the cementing quality.
     
    Cementing construction process
    Down the casing to the predetermined depth → cement head, circulating mud, grounding surface pipeline → hitting the liquid → cementing → top rubber plug → for mud → pressure → cementing end, waiting for condensation.
     
    Completion wellhead device
    (1) casing head - sealing two layers of casing annulus, suspending the second part of the casing string and bearing part of the weight;
    (2) Tubing head--bearing cone pipe hanging, connecting oil casing and oil tree, discharge gate and pipeline;
    (3) Oil tree--Control oil and gas flow, carry out production safely and systematically, carry out operations such as completion testing, liquid injection, well killing, and oil well waxing.
     
    Tail tube cementing
    The tail pipe cementing is a cementing method in which the casing is cemented in the open hole section of the open hole in the lower part. There are three fixing methods for the tail pipe: the tail pipe seat is in the bottom hole method; the cement ring suspension method; the tail pipe hanger suspension method.
     
    Test oil
    After drilling the oil and gas layers, it is necessary to let the oil and gas in the oil and gas layers flow from the bottom of the well to the ground, and test to obtain dynamic data such as oil, gas layer production and pressure, as well as oil, gas and water properties. Waiting for work, called test oil (gas).
     
    Perforation
    When the drilling is completed, the casing should be cemented to fix the well wall, and then the hole is placed under the hole. The casing and the cement ring are sprayed up to the oil (gas) layer to open the passage for the oil and airflow into the wellbore. hole. At present, the perforators widely used at home and abroad have two types: the bullet-type perforator and the shaped energy jet perforator.
     
    Bottom hole pollution
    Bottom hole pollution, also known as bottom hole damage, refers to the phenomenon that the oil well leaks or the filtrate of water-based drilling fluid leaks into the formation during the drilling or workover process, which reduces the permeability of the formation near the wellbore.
     
    Lure
    Before the perforating, in order to prevent the blowout accident, the oil and gas wells are generally filled with killing fluid. After perforating, in order to direct the liquid in the formation to the ground, it is necessary to reduce the liquid column of the killing fluid and reduce the pressure on the fluid in the formation. This process is a process in the test of oil, called squirting. The methods of squirting are the spray method, the suction method, the fishing method, and the gas lift method.
     
    Drill pipe formation test
    Drill pipe formation testing is an advanced technique for testing a formation tester with a packer into a well using a drill pipe or tubing. It can be tested either in a well that has been drilled into the casing or in an open hole that has not been drilled into the casing; it can be tested both after the drilling is completed and in the middle of the drilling.
     
    Cable formation test
    After the oil and gas display is found during the drilling process, the cable can be used to obtain the sample of the fluid in the formation and measure the formation pressure by using the cable to the formation tester, which is called the cable formation test. This test method is relatively simple and can be performed multiple times and repeatedly.
     
    Tubing transmission perforation
    The tubing transmission perforation is carried by the oil pipe to bring the perforator into the well. After the perforating, the fluid of the formation can be directly led to the ground through the oil pipe. It is not necessary to inject a large amount of killing fluid into the well during the perforating to avoid the pollution of the bottom hole. advanced technology.
     
    Rock porosity
    The porosity of a rock refers to the ratio of the volume of space Vp in the rock that is not filled with solid matter to the total volume of rock Vb. Expressed by the Greek letter Φ, the expression is: Φ = V pore / V rock × 100% = Vp / Vb × 100%
     
    Formation crude oil volume coefficient
    The volume coefficient of the formation crude oil βo, also known as the underground volume coefficient of crude oil, or simply the volume coefficient of crude oil. It is the ratio of the volume of crude oil in the ground (ie, the volume of formation oil) to its volume after degassing on the ground. The underground volume coefficient βo of crude oil is always greater than one.
     
    Fluid saturation
    The saturation of a fluid refers to the volume percentage of a fluid in the pores of a reservoir rock. It indicates the extent to which the pore space is occupied by a fluid. The rock is filled with pores by several phase fluids, and the sum of the fluid saturations of these phases is 1 (100%).
     
    Permeability
    The property of rock to allow the passage of liquids and gases when there is a pressure difference is called the permeability of the rock, and the permeability is the quantitative representation of the permeability of the rock. It characterizes the ability of oil and gas to flow through the formation rock to the bottom of the well, in square meters (or square microns).
     
    Absolute permeability
    Absolute or physical permeability is the permeability that is obtained when only one phase (gas or single liquid) flows in the pores of the rock without physicochemical interaction with the rock. Usually it is represented by gas permeability, also referred to as permeability.
     
    Phase (effective) permeability and relative permeability
    When multiphase fluids coexist and flow in the formation, the ability of one of the phase fluids to pass through the rock is called the phase permeability or effective permeability of the phase fluid. The relative permeability of a phase fluid refers to the ratio of the effective permeability to the absolute permeability of the phase fluid.
     
    Formation pressure and original formation pressure
    The oil, gas layer itself and the oil, gas and water in it are subject to a certain pressure, called formation pressure. The formation pressure can be divided into three types: the original formation pressure, the current formation pressure and the static pressure of the oil and gas layers. Before the oil field was put into development, the entire oil layer was in a state of equilibrium and pressure, and no flow occurred. In the initial stage of oilfield development, the first or first batch of oil wells were completed, and after the injection, the wells were shut down. The pressure measured at this time is the original formation pressure.
     
    Formation pressure coefficient
    The pressure coefficient of the formation is equal to the pressure increase from the ground and the depth of the formation increases by 10 meters.
     
    Low pressure abnormality and high pressure abnormality
    Generally speaking, the deeper the oil layer is buried, the greater the pressure, the pressure coefficient of most reservoirs is between 0.7 and 1.2, the low pressure anomaly is less than 0.7, and the high pressure anomaly is greater than 1.2.
     
    Oil well acidification
    The purpose of acidification is to make the acid liquid infiltrate into the formation substantially along the radial direction of the oil well, thereby expanding the pore space under the action of the acid liquid, dissolving the particle blockage in the space, eliminating the adverse effect of reducing the permeability of the formation near the wellbore, and achieving the effect of increasing production.
     
    Fracturing acidification
    An acid treatment process that squeezes the formation under pressure sufficient to fracture the formation to form a fracture or open the original fracture of the formation is referred to as fracturing acidification. Fracturing acidification is mainly used to plug oil and gas wells in deeper or lower permeability zones.
     
    fracture
    The so-called fracturing is a method of using hydraulic action to form cracks in the oil layer, also known as oil layer hydraulic fracturing. The oil lamination process uses a fracturing vehicle to squeeze a high-pressure large-displacement liquid with a certain viscosity into the oil layer. When the oil is laminated with many cracks, a proppant (such as quartz sand) is added to fill the crack to improve the oil layer. Permeability to increase water injection (water injection well) or oil production (oil well). Commonly used fracturing fluids include water-based fracturing fluids, oil-based fracturing fluids, emulsion fracturing fluids, foam fracturing fluids, and acid-based fracturing fluids.
    High energy gas fracturing
    Use solid rocket propellant or liquid gunpowder to ignite and detonate (not explode) in the underground oil layer, generate a large amount of high-pressure and high-temperature gas, and laminate the oil into multiple radiations within a few milliseconds to tens of milliseconds. Cracks of 2 to 5 m, the cracks cannot be completely closed after the deflagration shock wave disappears, thereby releasing the partial blockage of the oil layer and improving the permeability of the formation near the bottom of the well. This process technology is high-energy gas fracturing. High-energy gas fracturing has many advantages, the main points are as follows, no large-scale fracturing equipment is needed; no large amount of fracturing fluid is needed; no proppant is injected; construction work is convenient and fast; damage to the formation is small or no damage; low cost; .
     
    Oilfield development
    Oilfield development refers to the rational distribution of oil wells and production sequence in the reservoir on the basis of understanding and mastering the oilfield geology and its changing rules, and the underground petroleum resources are collected to the ground by adjusting the working system and other technical measures of the production wells. The whole process.
     
    Oilfield development program
    The oilfield development process refers to the work sequence of the oilfield from detailed exploration to full investment. 1. Arrange the exploration well on the structural belt of the oil to quickly control the oil content. 2. Within the controlled oil-bearing area, drill the data well to understand the characteristics of the oil layer. 3. Partition layered oil test to obtain oil layer production parameters. 4. Open up the production test area and further master the characteristics of the oil layer and its changing laws. 5. According to the core, logging and oil testing, test mining and other data for comprehensive research, make oil layer stratification comparison map, structural map and fault distribution map to determine the reservoir type. 6. Oilfield development and design. 7. Drill a basic well pattern based on the most reliable and stable oil layer. After the drilling, it will not be put into production. According to the whole data of the well, the oil sand body of all oil layers will be compared and then the original plan will be modified and adjusted. 8. After the production wells and injection wells are put into production, collect actual production and pressure data for research, modify the original design indicators, and determine the specific production and distribution plans for each development period. Due to the different conditions in each field, the development process is not exactly the same.
     
    Reservoir drive type
    The reservoir drive type refers to the main driving force for oil displacement during oil layer mining. The driving force of the oil is different, and the driving method is different. The drive modes of the reservoir can be divided into four categories: hydraulic drive, pneumatic drive, dissolved gas drive and gravity drive. In fact, different stages of the production process of the reservoir will have different driving energies, that is, there are several driving methods at the same time.
     
    Recoverable reserves
    Recoverable reserves refer to the amount of oil and gas that can be recovered from oil and gas reservoirs under existing economic and technical conditions. The recoverable reserves increase with the increase in oil and gas prices and the application of advanced mining technology.
     
    Oil production speed
    The ratio of annual oil production (reservoir) to its geological reserves, expressed as a percentage, is called the oil recovery rate.
     
    Oil production intensity
    The oil production intensity is the daily oil production per unit oil layer thickness, that is, how many tons of oil is produced per meter of oil layer per day.
     
    Oil production index
    The oil production per day of the oil well is divided by the pressure difference at the bottom of the well. The resulting quotient is called the oil production index. The oil production index is equal to the oil production per day of the oil production unit, which is an important parameter indicating the production capacity of the oil well.
     
    Recovery factor
    The recoverable reserves account for the percentage of geological reserves, which is called recovery.
     
    Christmas tree
    The tree is a wellhead device from the well. It is mainly used for suspending the tubing string that enters the well, sealing the annular space of the oil casing, controlling and regulating the production of the oil well, ensuring daily production management such as operation, construction, oil, casing pressure data, testing and wax removal.
     
    Declining rate, natural decline rate and comprehensive decline rate
    After a certain period of development of oil and gas fields, the output will be decremented according to a certain law. The decline rate refers to the percentage of production decrement per unit time. The natural decline rate refers to the ratio of the oil production in the next stage to the oil production in the previous stage, excluding the increase in output by various stimulation measures. The comprehensive decline rate refers to the rate of decline including the increase in output of various stimulation measures.
     
    Oilfield Nissan
    The average daily production of the oil field is called the daily production level. Because the oil wells need to be repaired in a short period of time or the construction of stimulation measures, etc., not all oil wells are producing oil every day, so the daily production level is lower than the daily production capacity.
     
    Oil well gas measurement
    Gas measurement is one of the most important tasks in oil well management. Only by mastering the accurate gas volume and gas-oil ratio can we correctly analyze and judge the underground changes of oil wells, master the relationship between oil and gas injection, and better manage wells. . At present, the commonly used gas measurement in the field is divided into two categories: venting gas and sealing gas. There are three commonly used gas measurement methods: (1) gasket flowmeter venting gas measurement method (pressure differential meter gas measurement); (2) differential flowmeter (float type differential pressure gauge) closed pressure measurement method; (3) bellows Automatic gas measurement method.
     
    Layered production
    The stratified production is based on the requirements of oilfield development, and the oil reservoir is divided into several production intervals in the lower subpacker. For the different distributors under different intervals, different sizes of downhole nozzles are installed to control different production pressure differences to obtain different yields.
     
    Mechanical oil recovery
    When the energy of the reservoir is insufficient to maintain the self-spraying, the energy must be artificially replenished from the ground to lift the crude oil out of the wellhead. If the way to replenish energy is to use mechanical energy to extract oil from the ground, it is called mechanical oil recovery. At present, domestic and foreign mechanical oil production devices are mainly divided into two types: rod pump and rodless pump. Rod Pump Ground power equipment drives the pumping unit and drives the deep well pump through the sucker rod. Rodless pump Pumping unit that does not use a sucker rod to transmit power. At present, there are many types of rodless pumps, such as hydraulic piston pumps, electric submersible centrifugal pumps, jet pumps, vibration pumps, and screw pumps. At present, the most widely used is the beam pumping unit deep well pump unit. Because the device is reasonable in structure, durable, easy to manage, and has a wide range of applications.
     
    Pump efficiency
    The ratio of the actual production volume of the pumping unit well to the theoretical displacement of the pump is called pump efficiency. The calculation formula is: η = Q liquid / Q rational × 100% η deep well pumping efficiency; Q liquid well actual output (ton / day); Q rational pump displacement (ton / day), pump efficiency reflects the level Whether the pump performance is good or not and the selection of pumping parameters is appropriate. There are three factors that affect the pump efficiency: (1) geological factors: including sand production from oil wells, excessive gas, waxing in oil wells, high viscosity of crude oil, corrosive water in oil layers, components of corrosion pumps for hydrogen sulfide gas, etc.; Equipment factors: the quality of the pump, the quality of the installation, the improper matching of the bushing and the piston clearance, or the impregnation of the ball and the Versailor will reduce the pump efficiency. (3) Impact of working mode: improper selection of pump operating parameters will also reduce pump efficiency. If the parameters are too large, the theoretical displacement is far greater than the oil supply capacity of the oil layer, resulting in a shortage of supply, and the pump efficiency is naturally low. If the punch is too fast, the oil will not be able to enter the pump cylinder and the pump efficiency will be reduced. The pump is too deep, causing excessive stroke loss and will also reduce pump efficiency.
     
    Improve the pumping efficiency of the pump
    (1) Improve the water injection effect, maintain the formation energy, stabilize the formation pressure, and improve the liquid supply capacity.
    (2) Reasonably select the deep well pump to improve the quality of the pump (overhaul), to ensure the matching clearance of the pump and the non-leakage of the valve.
    (3) Reasonably select the working parameters of the pumping well.
    (4) Reduce stroke loss.
    (5) Prevent sand, wax, water and corrosive media from invading the pump.
     
    Gas lift
    When the energy supplied by the local layer is not enough to lift the crude oil from the bottom of the well to the ground, the well stops spraying. In order to continue the oil production of the oil well, it is necessary to artificially press the gas (natural gas) into the bottom of the well to spray the crude oil out of the ground. This oil production method is called gas lift production. Offshore oil recovery, exploration wells, inclined wells, oil wells containing sand, gas and corrosive components and therefore not suitable for other mechanical oil recovery methods can be used for gas lift production. The advantage of gas lift production is that the wellhead and downhole equipment are simpler and the management adjustment is more convenient. The disadvantage is that the ground equipment system is complex, the investment is large, and the utilization of gas energy is low.
     
    Oilfield water injection
    The measure of using water injection wells to inject water into the oil layer to supplement and maintain the pressure of the reservoir is called water injection. After the oilfield is put into development, as the mining time increases, the energy of the oil layer itself will be continuously consumed, causing the pressure of the oil layer to continuously decrease. The underground crude oil will be degassed a lot, the viscosity will increase, the production of the oil well will be greatly reduced, and even the production will stop spraying, resulting in underground. A large amount of residual oil can not be recovered. In order to make up for the underground deficit caused by the recovery of crude oil, maintain or increase the pressure of the reservoir, achieve high yield and stable production of the oilfield, and obtain high recovery rate, the oilfield must be injected.
     
    Oilfield water injection method
    The water injection method is the injection and production system, which refers to the position of the water injection well in the reservoir and the arrangement relationship between the water injection well and the production well. The following water injection methods can be selected according to the characteristics of the oil field: 1 edge water injection, which is divided into the outer water injection 3, water injection and edge water injection; 2 cutting water injection; 3 area water injection, can be divided into five points water injection, seven points method water injection, seven point method water injection, four point method water injection and nine point method water injection.
     
    Layered matching
    The lower packer in the injection well separates the oil layer from several water injection intervals. Under the water distributor, the water injection process of installing nozzles of different diameters is called layered dispensing. In order to solve the contradiction between the layers, the water injection is reasonably distributed to each interval, the formation pressure is maintained, the water permeability is controlled by the layer with good permeability and water absorption capacity, and the water injection is enhanced for the layer with poor permeability and weak water absorption capacity. The high, medium, low and permeable strata can play the role of water injection, realizing long-term high-yield and stable production of oil fields and improving ultimate recovery.
     
    Downhole operation
    In the process of oilfield development, according to the needs of oilfield adjustment, transformation, improvement, and potential tapping, according to the process design requirements, a set of ground and downhole equipment and tools are used to adopt various underground technical measures for oil and water wells to improve the amount of injection and production. Improve the seepage conditions of the reservoir and the technical status of oil and water wells, and improve the oil recovery rate and ultimate recovery. This series of downhole construction techniques is collectively referred to as downhole operations.
     
    Oil layer damage type
    Oil layer damage means that the oil layer penetration ability causes an undesired decline for some reason. Oil layer damage has mechanical particle damage, clay swelling damage, oil and water emulsification damage, paraffin, colloid, asphalt, resin deposition damage, chemical fouling precipitation damage, oil-water interfacial tension (capillary force) change damage, rock wettability change damage, biological Bacterial clogging damage, etc. The most basic method to prevent oil layer damage is to test the compatibility of well fluid with oil layer, crude oil and oil layer water to avoid undesired changes in the oil layer. The density of the operation kill fluid should be properly selected to avoid leakage into a large number of kill fluids and damage the oil layer. .
     
    Well test
    Well test is a method to analyze the characteristics of oil and gas layers and to study the different development rules of oil and gas reservoirs by changing the working system of oil, gas and water wells, and testing the parameters of production, pressure and temperature. It is an important means to master the dynamics of oil and gas reservoirs, and is an important basis for formulating a reasonable mining system and development plan.
     
    Stable test
    Stable well testing is to gradually change the working system of the oil well (changing the diameter of the nozzle for the self-injection well; changing the gas injection volume for the gas lift well; changing the stroke and the number of strokes for the pumping well), and then measuring each working system Bottom hole pressure, oil, gas, water production, sand content and oil and gas ratio. By stability is meant that production does not change substantially over time.
     
    Unstable test
    Unstable well test is to change the working principle of oil well to change the bottom hole pressure, and to analyze the formation parameters and reserves within the control range of the well, the perfection of the well, calculate the current formation pressure and judge the boundary of the reservoir based on the data of these pressure changes. Situation, etc. Since the change in bottom hole pressure is an unstable process, it is called unstable test.
     
    Production dynamic logging
    The main tasks of production dynamic logging are to determine the production profile of the oil and gas well, the injection profile of the water injection and steam injection wells; to determine the water-flooded layer, to find the missing oil and gas layers; to determine the engineering and technical status of the well itself; Porosity, permeability and changes in oil saturation.
     
    Carbon-oxygen ratio logging
    Carbon-oxygen ratio logging is a new type of pulse neutron logging method. Because the oil mainly contains carbon, the water mainly contains oxygen. The ratio of carbon and oxygen in the formation can be obtained through the carbon-oxygen ratio logging. The missing oil and gas layers can be found in the wells that have been casingd. Determine the residual saturation of the oil layer, and the like.
     
    Oilfield chemistry
    Chemical agents or chemical methods are used in the oil field to improve the working conditions and solve problems in the production process, referred to as oilfield chemistry.
     
    Wax cleaning in oil production
    When waxy petroleum is mined, the wax is dissolved in the crude oil in the formation. When the crude oil rises along the wellbore, due to the cooling effect of temperature, pressure reduction and gas expansion, at a certain depth, the wax begins to precipitate from the crude oil and gathers on the oil pipe wall, so that the cross-sectional area of ​​the oil pipe becomes smaller or even blocked. If the wax cleaning operation is not carried out in time, the oil well will be reduced.
     
    Causes of sand formation in the formation and damage to the oil layer
    (1) The movement of the unconsolidated formation and formation fluids causes the well to be sanded;
    (2) The oil and water wells produce water, and the cement in the water-dissolved formation reduces the consolidation strength, so that the oil and gas wells are sanded;
    (3) The formation pressure drops, causing the cement and rock to break down to produce sand;
    (4) Abuse of acidification and other measures to destroy the cement;
    (5) Excessive or too fast suction during production causes sand production.
     
    Harm of sand production in oil and gas layers
    (1) reduced production;
    (2) causing production suspension;
    (3) Oil and gas well damage;
    (4) Abrasion equipment.
     
    Directional well
    A directional well is a drilling method that drills a wellbore along a pre-designed wellbore and azimuth to reach the target layer. There are three main types of profiles: (1) two-section type: vertical section + inclined section; (2) three-section type: vertical section + inclined section + stable oblique section; (3) five-section type: upper vertical section + creation Oblique section + stable slope section + descending slope section + lower vertical section.
     
    Downhole power drilling tool
    The drill string consisting of a drill bit, a downhole power drill, a slanting tool, a drill collar, and a drill pipe is in a freely bent state before entering the well. After entering the well, the bending of the drill string is restricted by the well wall, so that the drill bit produces an oblique force on the well wall. In addition, the bit axis does not coincide with the wellbore axis, resulting in lateral fracture of the well wall and asymmetry to the bottom of the well. When the downhole power drill drives the drill bit to rotate, the slanting tool does not rotate, which ensures that the wellbore deflects at a certain angle in a certain direction to achieve the purpose of slanting.
     
    Cluster well
    Cluster wells refer to the drilling of several or even hundreds of wells on a well site or platform. The wellheads of each well are less than a few meters apart, and the well bottoms are extended to different orientations. The cluster well has the following advantages: it can meet certain special needs of drilling engineering, such as rescue wells for uniform blowouts; it can speed up the exploration and development of oilfields, save drilling costs; facilitate the centralized management of oil wells after completion, and reduce the gathering process. Save investment in people, money, and materials.
     
    Horizontal well production
    A typical well is vertically or obliquely penetrating through the reservoir, and the section through the reservoir is relatively short. In the horizontal well, after drilling the oil layer vertically or obliquely, the wellbore is conveyed close to the level to keep parallel with the oil layer, so that the long well section can be drilled in the oil layer until the completion. Such oil wells pass through hundreds of meters to more than 2,000 meters in the oil well section, which is conducive to multi-production of oil, and the flow resistance of fluid flowing into the well is reduced. The production capacity is several times higher than that of ordinary vertical and inclined wells. One of the latest oil recovery processes.
    Main method of mining heavy oil
    Mainly mixed with active water viscosity reduction, oil mixing and viscosity reduction, hot water circulation viscosity reduction, electric heat reduction viscosity, fire oil layer, hot water flooding, steam stimulation and steam flooding.
     
    Thermal oil extraction
    Thermal oil recovery refers to the method of injecting hot fluid into the reservoir or causing the oil layer to burn in situ to form a moving heat flow, mainly relying on the use of thermal energy to reduce the viscosity of the crude oil to increase the flowability of the crude oil. It is an effective method for mining crude oil with high viscosity in the underground.
     
    Steam stimulation
    Steam stimulation is also called periodic steam injection, steam soaking, steam stimulation and so on. The so-called steam stimulation is to first inject a certain amount of steam into the oil well, shut off the well for a period of time, and then expand the production method of the heavy oil after the heat energy of the steam is diffused to the oil layer.
     
    Fire oil layer
    Electrical and chemical methods are used to bring the temperature of the oil layer to the ignition point of the crude oil, and inject air or oxygen into the oil layer to continuously burn the oil in the oil layer. This is the fire oil layer. High viscosity heavy oil or tar sands are produced in this way. It has the advantage of extracting heavy crude oil and partially cracking heavy oil by burning to produce light oil. The recovery rate of this method is very high, up to 80%. Its difficulty is that it is difficult to implement the process, it is difficult to control underground combustion, and the cost of injecting a large amount of air into the high pressure is very expensive.
     
    Latest oil production technology
    The latest oil recovery technology includes clump-type oil recovery technology; horizontal well production technology; high-energy gas fracturing oil recovery process; liquid gunpowder fracturing oil recovery process; foam fracturing oil recovery process; CO2 fracturing oil recovery process; microbial oil recovery process; Rate oil recovery process; polymer flooding enhanced oil recovery process; CO2 flooding enhanced oil recovery process; alkali plus polymer enhanced oil recovery process; acoustic and ultrasonic oil recovery process; electromagnetic heating oil layer oil recovery process; magnetic energy wax removal, Descaling, viscosity reduction, injection oil production process; vibration oil recovery process; nuclear energy production process.
     
    Reservoir engineering
    Reservoir engineering is a comprehensive petroleum technology science based on oil layer physics and oil and gas layer seepage mechanics, engaged in oilfield development design and engineering analysis methods.
     
    Microbial oil recovery
    The microbial oil recovery method usually points to the reservoir to inject suitable strains and nutrients, so that the strains can multiply in the reservoir, metabolize petroleum, produce gas or active substances, and reduce the oil-water interfacial tension to improve oil recovery.
     
    What is tertiary oil recovery and its method
    Oil exploitation from oil reservoirs is often referred to as primary oil recovery; water and gas are injected into the reservoir, and energy is replenished to the reservoir. Petroleum extraction is called secondary recovery; chemical substances are used to improve the performance of oil, gas, water and rock. More oil is mined, called tertiary oil recovery. Also known as the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. There are many ways to improve oil recovery, mainly including the following: surfactant injection; polymer thickened water; alkali flooding; CO2 flooding; alkali injection plus polymer flooding; inert gas flooding; Miscible flooding; fired oil layer; steam flooding. Enhanced oil recovery by microbiological methods can also be attributed to tertiary oil recovery, and some people call it four oil recovery.
     
    The role of magnetic energy technology in oil recovery
    In addition to being used as a magnetic positioning for underground wells, a salvage device and a safety elevator pin for wellhead operations, magnetic energy technology has been used in recent years to prevent oil well waxing, water well injection, water injection equipment against scaling, strong magnetic viscosity reduction, and magnetic seal anti-pump leakage. In many aspects of the oil recovery process, and achieved good process results.

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